What is sia and how is it different from IPFS, Storj and PPIO
There have been many attempts to build distributed storage systems. However, these attempts were not successful. Siacoin is one of the attempts that is built on top of Bitcoin-like Proof of Work (PoW) consensus. PoW introduces wasteful computation and energy consumption, and it does not take into account the diﬀerent levels of storage and bandwidth contribution among the miners, which are crucial to a decentralized distributed storage system. Storj is another project that has gone through years of development, but it remains in the testing phase. Some of the known issues of Storj are the lack of quick response from miners upon storage request and its transactions are settled once per month which is not friendly to the miners. BurstCoin utilizes Proof of Capacity (PoC) that does take storage capac-ity of the miners into account, but unfortunately, it is not enough to serve well for the storage requirements.
The emerging FileCoin project that is under development by Protocol Labs adds an incentive layer on top of Inter-planetary File System (IPFS), with the goal to build a storage infrastructure and protocol to replace HTTP protocol. For that purpose, its ﬁle index is made public to facilitate features like Web access, but it poses a challenge to preserving user privacy and data security in a storage network. Besides, some of its storage proofs are too complex and likely to hold the system back from running eﬃciently at a large scale.
It does borrow mature P2P system designs from proven applications such as BitTorrent, but it provides no good solution to handle complex network environments and does not oﬀer performance optimization within regional networks. Such deﬁciency in the design can lead to many real-world problems to the miners and ISPs. As Protocol Labs claims that ﬁles stored on IPFS are permanent and cannot be deleted, it runs the risks of legal battles against policies and regulations and makes its worldwide deployment much more diﬃcult.
From the discussions above, it is clear that a more complete decentralized distributed storage so-lution is yet to be built to support large-scale and real-world storage system. So it is what PPIO attempts to accomplish. PPIO’s founding team successfully designed, developed and maintained PPLive, a peer to
peer streaming system that serves hundreds of millions of users on a daily basis. Such experiences allow the team to develop eﬃcient and practical solutions to achieve the following design goals.
Low Storage Cost. In the future, high storage cost is one of the critical challenges for many companies. PPIO’s well-designed incentives provide attractive ﬁnancial rewards to miners and encourage them to contribute to the network. At the same time, it punishes misbehaving participants. As a result,
a large, high-quality miner community can be established and kept growing. This allows PPIO to make use of the vast amount of unused bandwidth and storage resources on the Internet, and provide robust storage service at much lower cost. To make the storage system easy to use, PPIO introduces a scheme called ”Coin Pool”, that helps the users to store and download micropayments. At the
same time, PPIO’s design also includes a mechanism to protect users from the impact of storage price ﬂuctuations, which provides a better user experience than existing centralized storage platforms and more importantly much lower price.
• Scalability and High Eﬃciency. Beneﬁt from the founding team’s experience from creating and operating the distributed network with hundreds of millions of users, PPIO is designed from the ground up to perform eﬃciently at a global scale. Besides a set of industry proven P2P transmission technologies, the team also developed data-driven scheduling, a self-organizing overlay network, and
optimized content distribution network. PPIO’s design also improves the eﬃciency in regional net-works and makes it more friendly to ISPs. Combined with its innovation in NAT Traversal, Kaldemlia distributed hash table (DHT), lightweight storage consensus proof and optimized transmission for media streaming, PPIO’s distributed storage network can perform with extremely high eﬃciency and can be easily scaled to hundreds of millions of network nodes.
• Privacy, Security and Stability. Data security and privacy protection are the top requirements in PPIO’s distributed ﬁle system design. By using data sharding and encryption algorithms, user’s data can only be retrieved by the one who possesses the user’s unique private key. At the same time, it allows the user to easily share their data to the public or within a private group. PPIO is equipped with practical storage proofs to maintain the integrity and reliability of its storage contents. Light Proof of Capacity (LPoC) is developed to provide lightweight validation of storage capacity provided by the miners. An optimized Proof of Space-Time (PoSt) ensures that the speciﬁed data is indeed stored by
the miner over a period. Proof of Replication (PoRep) is used to guarantee that the miners replicate user’s data. Proof of Download (PoD) ensures that user can download the stored data correctly.
• Strong Application Support and Ecosystem. PPIO provides a set of storage APIs similar to those of the cloud services such as AWS S3 and makes the data migration from those services much comfortable. PPIO also has a set of technologies built into better support decentralized applications, including object-based storage, dApp Sandbox mechanisms, and ﬁle access management, etc. PPIO has a comprehensive plan to develop a robust, healthy and sustainable ecosystem, to facilitate the development of applications and services, and allow the developers to enjoy real beneﬁts from PPIO’s growth.
I made some research about ppio and it seems very promising.
But in fact, it's a very young project and more centralized than Sia for the moment. This is just the beginning and I think the technology is very interesting for all people who want a decentralized, high available and cheaper storage.
As I'm very curious, I will follow what they are doing